Background: Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., is an important medicinal plant in China. Recently, researches of A. Lancea were focused on chemical composition and genetics, only a few were concerned with soil factors. Objective: The aim was to discuss the relationship between geo-herbalism of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and inorganic elements in soil. Materials and Methods: The contents of 15 kinds of inorganic elements in the rhizoma of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and soils from various regions were determined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and the data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20.0 software. Results: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea and in soil with different geological background were different. The soils in the famous region contained high aluminum, iron, sodium and low sulfur content. The rhizoma of A. Lancea contained high aluminum, lithium, manganese and low iron, sulfur content. The famous-region crude drugs had a strong tendency to accumulate selenium, manganese. Ten characteristic elements of A. Lancea were K, Ca, S, Al, Li, Ti, Mn, Pb, Ni, SE. Conclusion: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea showed a significant positive interrelationship with those in soil. It was identified that inorganic elements play an important role in forming authenticity A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC.