Background: Sesame oil from the seeds of Sesamum indicum Linn. (Pedaliaceae) has been used traditionally in Indian medical practice of Ayurveda in the treatment of central nervous system disorders and insomnia. A few published reports favor the anti-dementia effect of sesamol (SML), an active constituent of sesame oil. Objective: Thus, the present study was aimed to explore the anti-dementia effect and possible mechanism (s) of SML in aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 )-induced cognitive dysfunction model in rodents with special emphasis on memory centers viz., hippocampus and frontal cortex. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to AlCl 3 (175 mg/kg p.o.) for 60 days. SML (10 and 20 mg/kg) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) were administered orally 45 min before administration of AlCl 3 for 60 days. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. After 60 days of treatment animals were sacrificed, hippocampus and frontal cortex were collected and analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level, antioxidant enzymes (Glutathione, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level. The circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were also analyzed. Results: SML significantly prevented behavioral impairments in aluminium-exposed rats. Treatment with SML reversed the increased cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL while raised the HDL levels. SML significantly corrected the effect of AlCl 3 on AChE activity. Further, SML reversed the elevated nitric oxide, TNF-α and reduced antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Conclusion: The present study suggests the neuro-protection by SML against cognitive dysfunction induced by environmental toxin (AlCl 3 ) in hippocampus and frontal cortex.