Background: Zingiber officinale Rosc. is not only an important medical plant in China, but also one of the most commonly used plant spices around the world. Early researches in Z. officinale Rosc. were focused on rapid propagation, germplasm preservation, and somatic embryogenesis, only a few reports focused on the generation of tetraploid ginger plants with colchicines treatment in vitro. Materials and Methods: The adventitious buds were submerged into different concentrations of colchicine water solution for different time to induce polyploid plants, and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Eighteen selected tetraploid lines were transferred to the field, and the leaf characteristics, rhizome yield, contents of volatile oil and gingerol were respectively evaluated to provide evidence of high-yield and good qualities of tetraploid ginger. Results: The induction rate reached as high as 33.3% of treated buds. More than 48 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploidy characteristics. All of the 18 selected tetraploid lines possessed higher rhizome yield and overall productivity of volatile oil and gingerol than those of the control. Conclusion: Five elite lines have been selected for further selection and breeding new varieties for commercial production in agricultural production.