Background: Miconia albicans is a vegetable widely used in folk medicine as an alternative for the treatment of pain and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical profile and anxiolytic- and anticonvulsant-like effects of the aqueous extract M. albicans leaves (CAVEL) in adult zebrafish. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity, chemical prospecting, and toxicity tests were performed. Then, the anxiolytic- and anticonvulsant-like effects were investigated in adult zebrafish. Results: It was detected the presence of flavonoids, xanthones, besides alkaloids, flavonoids, and polyphenols in CAVEL. Eighteen polyphenols and nine flavonoids were identified in CAVEL. CAVEL showed antioxidant activity and no cytotoxic potential. The effects of CAVEL in adult zebrafish were dependent on the route of administration: CAVEL (Per os [p.o.] and intraperitoneal [i.p.]) did not alter the locomotion of the animals, presented anxiolytic-like effect (p.o. and i.p.) and delayed anticonvulsant-like effect (p.o.). The anxiolytic-like effect was prevented by GABAergic receptor antagonist. M. albicans has pharmacological potential for the treatment of anxiety and anticonvulsant and these results support studies of isolation and characterization of bioactive principles. Conclusion: M. albicans has pharmacological potential for the treatment of anxiety and anticonvulsant and these results support studies of isolation and characterization of bioactive principles.