Aim: This study was intended to identify potentially target genes and underlying biological pathway of sanguinarine in ovarian cancer. Methods: We obtained the expression changes of downstream target genes and underlying biological pathways regulated by control and sanguinarine groups via Affymetrix gene expression profile chip in ovarian cancer cells. An Affymetrix Genechip Agilent mRNA Array was used to recognize differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Afterward, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed for the DEGs using the DAVID database. Results: A total of 1185 DEGs between sanguinarine and control groups were identified, including 835 upregulated and 350 downregulated DEGs. The result of GO analysis recommended that the DEGs were mostly enriched in biological processes, including negative regulation of gene expression, nitrogen compound metabolic process, and transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. Alterations in cellular components (CC) were suggestively enriched in the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. The changes in molecular function were suggestively enriched in nucleic acid-binding transcription factor activity, protein dimerization activity, and enzyme binding. The results of the KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the DEGs were mostly concentrated in “Systemic lupus erythematosus,” “MAPK signalling pathway,” “Pathways in cancer,” and “Metabolic pathways.” Conclusion: The present study provided insights into the mechanism underlying sanguinarine target genes in ovarian cancer cells, which might be used as effective targets for OC diagnosis and treatment.