Background: Cervical cancer is the most common malignant disease affecting women worldwide. The currently available therapies for cancer, even though effective, affect the patient's health severely due to the associated side effects. Thus, nowadays, complementary/alternative medicines are being extensively researched upon for their use as an adjunct therapy. Panchavalkala, an Ayurvedic formulation, is traditionally being used as a douche in leukorrhea and other gynecological diseases. Objective: The objective of the study was to phytochemically standardize aqueous extract of Panchavalkala (PVaq) and evaluate its anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical characterization of PVaq was done by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS) technique. The effect of PVaq on the viability of SiHa and HeLa cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide dye assay. The effect of the extract on growth kinetics was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion method and soft agar assay. Results: LCMS analysis showed presence of 77 compounds, of which 15 major compounds included proanthocyanidin B1, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, leucopelargonidin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, leucocyanidin, naringenin-7-o-glucoside, mesoinositol, catechin, vogelin E, mesoinositol, behenic acid, bergenin, acacetin, and gallic acid. PVaq significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the viability of SiHa and HeLa cells with an IC50 of 125.8 and 96.0 μg/ml, respectively. It also reduced the growth of cervical cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusion: This preliminary data suggests that PVaq exhibits potential anticancer activity and warrants further studies for detailed elucidation of its mechanism of action.