Background: Millions of people are killed by viral hepatitis every year in the world, whereas many relevant medicines are too expensive to purchase. Swertia mileensis, a medicinal plant for hepatitis in the system of traditional Chinese medicine, has been vanishing gradually because of overexploitation. Objective: To find substitutes of S. mileensis and reduce the cost of purchasing drugs for hepatitis patients, the similarity of phytochemical constituents between S. mileensis and other three Swertia species was compared. Materials and Methods: Both ultra high performance liquid chromatographies and ultraviolet-vis fingerprints of four Swertia species were developed. Methanol extracts of the stems and leaves were used as samples to establish the fingerprint. The calibration curve was drawn for quantitative analysis of swertiamarin. The data of ultra high performance liquid chromatographies were evaluated statistically using similarity analysis and principal component analysis. Results: The result shows a significant difference at area of 204–290 nm in the ultraviolet fingerprint. Swertiamarin, the only one common peak, was defined in chromatographic fingerprints of four Swertia species. The quantitative analysis suggested that the highest concentration of swertiamarin is in S. davidii. The similarity indexes between different samples were almost under 0.60. In the principal component analysis, separate points not only represent the distinction among different species, but also perform chemical discrepancies in content between stems and leaves of one same species. Conclusions: S. angustifolia, S. davidii, and S. punicea are not suitable as substitutes of S. mileensis because of their remarkable differences in entirety and local part. In order to address issues about substitutes and high cost of purchasing drugs, more studies need to undertake.