Aim/Background: We investigated the composition and structure of intracellular polysaccharides in cucumber seeds (CSs) and their effect on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and potential activity for fracture healing. Materials and Methods: Polysaccharides are its main water-soluble active ingredient. The SD rat tibia fracture model was established by surgical method, and the healing effect of cucumber seed polysaccharides (CSPs) on SD rat tibia fracture was preliminarily explored. Through histopathological observation, determination of rat serum indicators alkaline phosphatase (AKP), acid phosphatase (ACP), BGP, X-ray imaging observation, and micro-Computed Tomography (CT) imaging observation at different periods. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that CSP enhanced the activity of osteoblasts, increased the metabolic rate of osteoclasts, increased the secretion of AKP, BGP, and ACP, shortened the fracture healing time of SD rats and effectively promoted the healing of tibial fractures in SD rats.