Background: Topical effects are essential mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced gastric damage. Our previous study showed that the extract of Alpinia officinarum (AOE) may have some protective effects against the topical effects of indomethacin (INDO). The aim of this study was to elucidate the protective effects and mechanisms of A. officinarum against INDO-induced topical injuries to gastric mucosa. Materials and Methods: 0.5 mM INDO was used to cause topical effects to rat gastric epithelial cells (RGM-1). Meanwhile, AOE (2.5 μg/mL) and galangin (GAL) (0.05 mM) were added, respectively, to explore their protective effects. The cell proliferation, mitochondrial viability, and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, inverted fluorescence microscope, or microplate reader. Pro- and cleaved-caspase-3 were detected by Western blot method. Results: AOE and GAL could significantly protect INDO-damaged RGM-1 cells by promoting cell proliferation, upregulating mitochondrial viability, inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release into cytoplasm, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, and suppressing H+/K+-ATPase activity. Conclusion: The gastroprotective effects of AOE and GAL were closely associated with suppressing the gastric acid secretion and restraining mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. These data provided new perceptions into interpreting the underlying mechanisms of gastroprotective effects of A. officinarum and showed a promising clinical use in treating gastric mucosal injury induced by NSAIDs.