Background: Zanthoxylum simullans Hance is a popular natural spice belonging to the Rutaceae family and it is one of the common prescribed herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Materials and Methods: The chemical constituents were mainly isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Their structures were identified by comparing the spectral data with those reported in the literature. Cytotoxic activities for the isolated acridone alkaloids were evaluated against two prostate cancer cell lines PC-3M and Lymph Node Carcinoma of Prostate (LNCaP), and their antimalarial activities were tested against two different strains of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, and Dd2. Results: The root bark MeOH extract of Z. simullans Hance afforded β-sitosterol, 4-methoxy benzoic acid, daucosterol, and five acridone alkaloids, normelicopidine, normelicopine, melicopine, melicopidine, and melicopicine. All five acridone alkaloids were isolated from this plant for the first time and exhibited certain cytotoxic and antimalarial activities in vitro. Conclusion: Normelicopidine was the most active against PC-3M, LNCaP and Dd2 with IC 50 values of 12.5, 21.1, and 18.9 ug/mL respectively.