Background: Anthemis species have been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhoid, stomachache and inflammatory diseases in Turkish folk medicine. Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. And Mey. is an endemic plant used as painkiller, antispasmodic, sedative and for the treatment of urinary inflammations. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflamatory activity of the extracts of A. wiedemanniana by using in vivo methods. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-, PGE2- and serotonin-induced hind paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema and acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability models were used for the anti-inflammatory activity assessment. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of A. wiedemanniana was investigated by gas chromatography (GC). Results: n-Hexane, diethyl ether and total sesquiterpene lactone extracts exhibited signifi cant inhibition in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability model. n-Hexane and total sesquiterperne lactone extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity in PGE2- and serotonin-induced hind paw edema model. However none of the extracts displayed significant activity in TPA-induced ear edema model in mice. C4:0 (Buthyric acid), C20:0 (Arachidic acid) and C16:1 (Palmitoleik acid) were found to be the major fatty acids in these species. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in higher amounts than monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. SFAs were determined as 63.17%, UFAs as 20.89% and PuFAs as 15.95%. Conclusion: This study confi rms the traditional usage of A. wiedemanniana for inflammatory diseases.