Context: Platelet is an important pharmacological target as it participates in complex processes of coagulation and hemostasis. Excessive platelet aggregation is responsible for the formation of pathogenic thrombi in patients with atherothrombotic disease. Objective: To expedite the search for platelet-targeted active candidates in Rhizoma Chuanxiong (root of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort [Umbelliferae]). Materials and Methods: Rhizoma Chuanxiong ethyl acetate extract (EAE) was obtained by refluxing extraction method. A platelet bio-specific extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/LC-MS) approach was employed to screen and identify the platelet-targeted compounds in Chuanxiong EAE, and the results were confirmed by in vitro antiplatelet aggregation test using turbidimetry method. Finally, HPLC-DAD analysis was employed for the quantitative determination of these hit compounds in Chuanxiong EAE. Results: A total of five hit components were tentatively detected and identified by HPLC-DAD/LC-MS, two of which, senkyunolide A and (Z)-ligustilide, were confirmed their antiplatelet activity by in vitro platelet aggregation experiment (both with IC50 <3 μg/mL, 2.42 μg/mL [12.60 μM] and 2.97 μg/mL [15.63 μM], respectively). Meanwhile, the quantitative results indicated that those two strongest inhibitors are the main components in Chuanxiong EAE (87.891 ± 1.668 mg/g and 109.058 ± 1.383 mg/g, respectively). Conclusion: Senkyunolide A and (Z)-ligustilide are the main active antiplatelet compounds in Rhizoma Chuanxiong EAE. The proposed platelet bio-specific extraction combined with HPLC-DAD/LC-MS method is of value for the discovering potential bioactive components in natural products.