Background: Genus Saussurea is famous for its use in traditional Chinese medicine. Objectives: Saussurea pachyneura, a plant from genus Saussurea, was studied for its secondary metabolites. Materials and Methods: The air-dried whole plant material was extracted by ethanol. The compounds from the ethanolic extract were isolated and purified by silica gel, octadecylsilyl-silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Their structures were identified based on the spectral analysis. Results: A total of 13 compounds, including a new long-chain fatty acid ester (4), were isolated and identified from the ethanolic extract of S. pachyneura. Conclusion: This is the first study to report the phytochemical analysis of S. pachyneura and also the first study to isolate the compounds from ethanolic extract of the whole plant material of S. pachyneura.