For the first time, callus and suspension cultures of Linum linearifolium were initiated. Podophyllotoxin (PTOX), a strong antitumor precursor, was isolated from the calli and suspension, as a main lignan besides smaller amount of 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6MPTOX). L. linearifolium is now the third Linum species of section Syllinum, with PTOX as the main lignan. The amounts of lignans, especially PTOX, found in L. linearifolium cell cultures are quite high within the studied Linum species until now. The antiproliferative effects of extracts were tested in a panel of human tumor cell lines, using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide]-dye reduction assay. The lignan mixtures caused concentration-dependent inhibition of malignant cell proliferation and showed moderate cytotoxic activity. The results clearly demonstrate that the lignan mixture of L. linearifolium exerts inhibitory effects against malignant cells.