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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 4: (A) Anxiolytic-like potency of chronic TnCE treatment in CF + SPS–induced mice as quantified by (i) total arm entries, (ii) total time elapsed in arms, (iii) % entries into open arms (iv) % time elapsed in open arms in the elevated plus maze. Data are represented as mean ± SEM, (n = 8), Comparisons: a = group II, III, IV, V, VI with group I and b = group III, IV, V, VI with group II, Significant: nsP > 0.05; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; $P < 0.05; $$P < 0.01 when group IV compared with group III; φφφP < 0.001 when group VI compared with group IV; (B) Photomicrographs representing histopathological analysis of hippocampal tissue of animals in (i) group I, (ii) group II, (iii) group III and (iv) group IV. Arrows indicate microstructural changes. Group I: CF/SPS (No stress + vehicle), Group II: CF+/SPS+ (stress + vehicle), Group III: CF+/SPS+−TnCE100 (stress + TnCE treatment, 100 mg/kg, b.w., p.o); Group IV: CF+/SPS+−TnC200 (stress + TnC treatment, 200 mg/kg, b.w., p.o), Group V: CF+/SPS+ −SeR15 (stress + SeR, 15 mg/kg, b.w., p.o), Group VI: CF+/SPS+-PK + TnCE [stress + PK11195 (3 mg/kg, b.w.; i.p)+TnCE (200 mg/kg, b.w., p.o)], SPS: single prolonged stress, CF: Conditioned fear, TnCE: Tinospora cordifolia (ethanolic extract); SeR: Sertraline, APG: Allopregnanolone, TSPO: Translocator protein, PK11195: TSPO antagonist

Figure 4: (A) Anxiolytic-like potency of chronic TnCE treatment in CF + SPS–induced mice as quantified by (i) total arm entries, (ii) total time elapsed in arms, (iii) % entries into open arms (iv) % time elapsed in open arms in the elevated plus maze. Data are represented as mean ± SEM, (<i>n</i> = 8), Comparisons: a = group II, III, IV, V, VI with group I and b = group III, IV, V, VI with group II, Significant: <sup>ns</sup><i>P</i> > 0.05; *<i>P</i> < 0.05; **<i>P</i> < 0.01; ***<i>P</i> < 0.001; <sup>$</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05; <sup>$$</sup><i>P</i> < 0.01 when group IV compared with group III; φφφ<i>P</i> < 0.001 when group VI compared with group IV; (B) Photomicrographs representing histopathological analysis of hippocampal tissue of animals in (i) group I, (ii) group II, (iii) group III and (iv) group IV. Arrows indicate microstructural changes. Group I: CF<sup>−</sup>/SPS<sup>−</sup> (No stress + vehicle), Group II: CF<sup>+</sup>/SPS<sup>+</sup> (stress + vehicle), Group III: CF<sup>+</sup>/SPS<sup>+</sup>−TnCE<sub>100</sub> (stress + TnCE treatment, 100 mg/kg, b.w., p.o); Group IV: CF<sup>+</sup>/SPS<sup>+</sup>−TnC<sub>200</sub> (stress + TnC treatment, 200 mg/kg, b.w., p.o), Group V: CF<sup>+</sup>/SPS<sup>+</sup> −SeR<sub>15</sub> (stress + SeR, 15 mg/kg, b.w., p.o), Group VI: CF<sup>+</sup>/SPS<sup>+</sup>-PK + TnCE [stress + PK11195 (3 mg/kg, b.w.; i.p)+TnCE (200 mg/kg, b.w., p.o)], SPS: single prolonged stress, CF: Conditioned fear, TnCE: <i>Tinospora cordifolia</i> (ethanolic extract); SeR: Sertraline, APG: Allopregnanolone, TSPO: Translocator protein, PK11195: TSPO antagonist