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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: The pharmacophore analysis and amino acid positions of (a) piperine and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, (b) piperine and GKRP, (c) retrofractamide A and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and (d) retrofractamide A and GKRP. The green dotted lines denote the hydrogen bond (donor); the yellow and the blue arcs denote the hydrophobic interactions among them

Figure 3: The pharmacophore analysis and amino acid positions of (a) piperine and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, (b) piperine and GKRP, (c) retrofractamide A and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and (d) retrofractamide A and GKRP. The green dotted lines denote the hydrogen bond (donor); the yellow and the blue arcs denote the hydrophobic interactions among them