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   2012| July-September  | Volume 8 | Issue 31  
    Online since August 2, 2012

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Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China
Linghong Liang, Xiangyang Wu, Maomao Zhu, Weiguo Zhao, Fang Li, Ye Zou, Liuqing Yang
July-September 2012, 8(31):215-224
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99287  PMID:23060696
Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C 18:2 ) and palmitic acid (C 16:0 ), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health.
  7,660 298 33
Curcumin increases rat mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation but inhibits adipocyte differentiation
Qiaoli Gu, Yan Cai, Chen Huang, Qin Shi, Huilin Yang
July-September 2012, 8(31):202-208
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99285  PMID:23060694
Background: Curcumin is a phenolic natural product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and has effects on bone health and fat formation. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Osteoblast differentiation of MSCs can be a result of upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Curcumin can potently induce HO-1 expression. Objective: The present study describes the effects of curcumin on rat MSC (rMSCs) differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Materials and Methods: Rat bone marrow MSCs were isolated and treated with or without curcumin. Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed and determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation, the expression of Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) and osteocalcin. Adipocyte differentiation was determined by Oil red O staining and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (PPARγ2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α. Results: Curcumin increased ALP activity and osteoblast-specific mRNA expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin when rMSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium. In contrast, curcumin decreased adipocyte differentiation and inhibited adipocyte-specific mRNA expression of PPARγ2 and C/EBPα when rMSCs were cultured in adipogenic medium. HO-1 expression was increased during osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that curcumin can promote osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs and inhibit adipocyte formation. The effect of curcumin on osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs is correlated with HO-1 expression.
  7,617 239 56
Selaginella tamariscina water extract inhibits receptor activator for the nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling
Ki-Shuk Shim, Ju-Seop Kang, Min-Ho Lee, Jin Yeul Ma
July-September 2012, 8(31):184-191
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99282  PMID:23060691
Background : Selaginella tamariscina has been traditionally used in Korea for treating hematochezia, hematuria, and prolapse of the anus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Selaginella tamariscina water extract (ST-WE) on osteoclast differentiation, and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Materials and Methods : RAW264.7 cells were used as a model to examine receptor activator for the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. Expression of osteoclastic genes and transcription factors was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, and NF-κB were determined by Western blot analysis. Results : ST-WE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in RAW264.7 cells. ST-WE also significantly inhibited the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, and the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V(0) domain (ATPv0d2) gene. In addition, ST-WE inhibited the RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38, phosphorylation of I-κBα and NF-κB p65, and the expression of transcription factors c-fos, Fra-2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1. Furthermore, ST inhibited the bone resorptive activity of osteoclasts. Conclusion : ST-WE might have beneficial effects on bonedisease by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic activity.
  5,047 67 2
Quick comparison of Radix Paeonia Alba, Radix Paeonia Rubra, and Cortex Moutan by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with monolithic columns and their chemical pattern recognition
He Chunnian, Peng Yong, Feng Yuxiong, Peng Bing, Wang Zhe, Xiao Peigen
July-September 2012, 8(31):237-243
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99290  PMID:23060699
Background: Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and Cortex Moutan are important Chinese herbs. Their bioactivities and efficacies are similar. However, they have different superior benefits clinically; so, a comprehensive investigation of the chemical difference is necessary and is of great importance for more reasonable quality assessment and proper clinical application of these three herbal medicines. Objective: To establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint method for the quality control of Radix Paeonia Alba, Radix Paeonia Rubra, and Cortex Moutan, and to compare their main constituents. Materials and Methods: The separations of Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and Cortex Moutan was carried out, respectively, through a gradient elution using a monolithic column and a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 5.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. The data calculation was performed with CHROMAP v1.51 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 18.0 software for principal component analysis. Results: A rapid separation method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) with monolithic columns and a fingerprint analysis method was established. Fifteen Radix Paeonia Alba, 45 Radix Paeonia Rubra, and 21 Cortex Moutan samples were analyzed and 11 chromatographic peaks were identified. Differences of chromatographic peaks among these three herbal medicines in chemical compositions were revealed. Conclusion: The separation and analysis method are fast and simple, which can be used for chemical fingerprint comparison of Radix Paeonia Alba, Radix Paeonia Rubra, and Cortex Moutan. The results for the evaluation of the three medicines could provide experimental evidence for chemical affinity.
  4,897 108 10
Postprandial blood glucose response to grape seed extract in healthy participants: A pilot study
Suwimol Sapwarobol, Sirichai Adisakwattana, Sawitree Changpeng, Wilwan Ratanawachirin, Kanokporn Tanruttanawong, Waridtha Boonyarit
July-September 2012, 8(31):192-196
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99283  PMID:23060692
Background: The consumption of a high carbohydrate diet may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies in vitro have revealed that grape seed extract (GSE) inhibited the intestinal α-glucosidases and α-pancreatic amylase that may delay carbohydrate digestion and absorption, resulting in the suppression of postprandial glycemia. The objective of the study was to assess whether consumption of GSE together with high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: The study used acute, randomized, controlled crossover design in which eight healthy subjects (four female and four male, mean aged 21.25 ± 3.69 years; body mass index =20.28 ± 1.40 kg/m 2 ) received high carbohydrate (HC) meal (73.6 %) together with or without 100 and 300 mg GSE. Results: Results showed that postprandial plasma glucose concentrations at 15 min and 30 min after ingestion HC meal together with 100 mg GSE (5.33 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 5.62 ± 0.47 mmol/L, respectively) and 300 mg GSE (5.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L; 5.75 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly lower than that of HC meal (P<0.05). There was statistically significant difference in the 2 h area under the glucose response curve between HC meal and HC meal plus GSE. Conclusions: GSE reduces postprandial plasma glucose in healthy participants. The delayed and attenuated hyperglycemia may have a useful strategy to prevent development of diabetes in the healthy population.
  4,444 175 10
Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector
Tonny Cley Campos Leite, Amanda Reges de Sena, Tânia Regina dos Santos Silva, Andrea Karla Almeida dos Santos, Ana Paula Trovatti Uetanabaro, Alexsandro Branco
July-September 2012, 8(31):209-214
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99286  PMID:23060695
Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paranα) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids.
  4,129 81 5
Anti-fatigue effects of Panax notoginseng in simulation plateau-condition mice
Simin Zhou, Yujie Wang, Huaijun Tian, Qingyuan Huang, Yuqi Gao, Gang Zhang
July-September 2012, 8(31):197-201
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99284  PMID:23060693
Background: Panax notoginseng (PN) is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbal drugs. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) is the main effective components of PN. However, the anti-fatigue effect of PNS in plateau-condition is unknown. Objective: Explore the anti-fatigue effects of PNS in mice living under simulation plateau-condition. Materials and Methods: Hundred male Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=20): one normoxia control group (NCG), one hypoxia control group (HCG), and three PNS groups in low dosage (0.42 g/kg), mid dosage (1.11 g/kg), and high dosage (11.53 g/kg). HCG and PNS groups were fed at a simulated elevation of 5 km. NCG and HCG were intragastric administrated with distilled water. After continuous administration for 10 days, the exhaustive swimming time, glycogen contents in liver, blood lactic acid (BLA), and blood glucose were determined. Results: Exposure of the mice to simulation plateau-condition with 5 km altitude for 10 days caused significant decrease of exercise tolerance compared to normoxia environment. The swimming time and glycogen contents in liver were significantly increased at all tested concentration (0.42, 1.11, and 11.53 g/kg). The area under the BLA curve was significantly decreased at the concentration of 0.42 g/ kg. The blood glucose of resting and 0 minutes after swimming were significantly increased by 29.31% and 15.51% (P<0.05) at a concentration of 11.53 g/kg compared to their own control groups, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that PNS could postpone the appearance of fatigue and accelerate the restoration of fatigue in plateau environment, especially in low dosage (0.42 g/kg) case.
  4,026 100 5
Simultaneous determination of ten bioactive compaounds from the roots of Cynanchum paniculatum by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector
Jin Bae Weon, Bohyoung Lee, Bo-Ra Yun, Jiwoo Lee, Choong Je Ma
July-September 2012, 8(31):231-236
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99289  PMID:23060698
Background: Cynanchum paniculatum Kitagawa belongs to Asclepiadaceae and was used in traditional medicine to invigorate blood, alleviate edema, relieve pain, and relieve toxicity for a long time. Objective: A novel and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector method has been established for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds isolated from Cynanchum paniculatum Kitagawa, one of the herbal medicines. Materials and Methods: The chromatography analysis was performed on a SHISEIDO C 18 column (S-5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. × 250 mm) at 35 o C with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at 210, 230, and 280 nm. Results: The method was validated for linearity, precision, and accuracy. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 > 0.9996). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) fell in the ranges 0.01 - 0.28 μg/ml and 0.04 - 0.83 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra- and inter- day test, precision test were within 1.92% and 2.43%, respectively. The mean recovery of all ranged from 92.82 to 107.96% with RSD values 0.12 - 2.18%. Conclusion: The results of validation appeared that this established method was very accurate and stabilized for the quantification of 10 bioactive compounds isolated from C. paniculatum.
  3,621 64 2
Pharmacogn. Mag. has its new Impact Factor - 1.159
KK Mueen Ahmed
July-September 2012, 8(31):181-181
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99280  PMID:23060689
  3,540 73 1
The suppression effects of desacetyluvaricin on hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible mechanism
Jian Zhong Yu, Xian-Lin Wu, Bin Yu, Cong-qi Dai, Kang-Li Liu, Qian Guo-Qiang, Guang X Zhou, Su H Lu, Da H Ju, Xiao Y Chen
July-September 2012, 8(31):225-230
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99288  PMID:23060697
Objective: To i nvestigate the anticancer effects of desacetyluvaricin (DES) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro, and to study its mechanism. Materials and Methods: Using DES and cisplatin (DDP) to intervene the cell lines of hepatocarcinoma G2.2.15 (HepG2.2.15) and HepG2, by detecting the expression of HBxAg by immunofluorescence method, the cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry method (FCM), and expression of NF-κB protein by ELISA. Results: DES and DDP showed to suppress proliferation of HepG2.2.15 and HepG2; they increase the S-phase cells and decrease G2/M phase cells. DES and DDP both could promote the apoptosis and reduce the expression of NF-κB on the cell line. DES and DDP both can suppress the expression of HbxAg in HepG2.2.15. There were no statistical differences of the above results between these two drugs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: DES possesses anticancer effect on hepatocarcinoma. The possible mechanism might be due to promotion the apoptosis of the cancer cells, and downregulate the expression of HBx andNF-κB protein. DES is a kind of natural products, Because of the lighter clinical side effects; our observations suggest that DES has the potential to be explored as an effective anticancer agent for HCC.
  3,368 57 1
Species selection for pharmacognostic studies
Ian Edwin Cock
July-September 2012, 8(31):182-183
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99281  PMID:23060690
  3,086 69 1