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   2009| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 19  
    Online since December 29, 2009

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Sambucus ebulus elburensis fruits: A good source for antioxidants
Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Somayyeh Ehsanifar, Bahman Eslami
July-September 2009, 5(19):213-218
The antioxidant activity of methanol and aqueous extract of Sambucus Ebulus (SE) was examined employing various in vitro assay systems, i.e. DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power, linoleic acid and iron ion chelating power. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 202.50 ± 1.38 for aqueous extract (SW) and 723.62 ± 3.36 μg ml-1 for methanol extract (SM). Reducing powers of all the extracts also increased with the increase of their concentrations. Both of them exhibited a weak reducing power at 25-800 μg ml-1. The SW extract had shown better reducing power than SM. Tested extracts exhibited week Fe2+ chelating ability. Both extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity. There were no significant differences between them in peroxidation inhibition. SW extracts manifested better pattern of activity than Vitamin C and BHA at different incubation times. SE fruit extracts exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the models studied. The SE extracts had good reductive capability for anti-lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide-scavenging activity. Aqueous extract had higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than methanol extract.
  31 6,103 205
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of Prosthechea michuacana in rats
Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Rosario Vargas Solis
July-September 2009, 5(19):219-225
The hexane, methanol and chloroform extracts of bulbs of orchid Prosthechea michuacana (PMIC) were studied for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties. Wound healing effects were studied on incision (skin breaking strength), excision (percent wound contraction). Collagen, hexosamine, total protein and DNA content in the granulation tissues were determined in addition to the rates of wound contraction and period of epithelialization. Topical applications of hexane extract PMIC produced increases in tensile strength, collagen content (hydroxyproline), and is better epithelisation thereby facilitating the healing. The hexane extract also was found possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in both acute (carrageenin-induced edema) as well as subacute (cotton pellet) animals models. Thus it could concluded that PMIC hexane may enhance the process of wound healing by influencing phases such as inflammation, fibroplasias, collagen synthesis and maturation, and wound contraction. Hexane extract significantly inhibited later phase of edema so it seems possible that P. michuacana blocks prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase release in later phase of acute inflammation, consequently decrease in granuloma weight indicates the suppression of the proliferative phase, which was effectively inhibited by the PMIC.
  10 4,425 145
In vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties of Hippophae rhamnoides L.
Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu, Ilhami Gulcin
July-September 2009, 5(19):189-195
Hippophae rhamnoides L. is a member of the Elaeagnaceae family, different parts of it, especially juice and oil of the fruits, have been used for the treatment of several diseases in traditional medicine in various countries. In the present study we investigated the possible antiradical and antioxidant activities of the hexanoic extract obtained from ripe fruit of H. rhamnoides L. (HRE) in in vitro conditions using different antioxidant tests: ferric thiocyanate method, reducing power, metal chelating activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) free radical scavenging. Results of experiment revealed that HRE has a concentration-dependent antioxidant effect. Total antioxidant activity was measured according to ferric thiocyanate method. At the concentration of 10, 20 and 50 µg/mL, the inhibitory effect of HRE on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion was found to be 36.8, 50.8 and 68.7 %, respectively. On the other hand, percentage inhibition of á-tocopherol was found to be 8.9 %. In addition, HRE was also effective in reducing power, metal chelating activities and DPPH· free radical scavenging experiments. These various antioxidant activities were compared to α-tocopherol, EDTA or trolox which references antioxidants. The results obtained from present study clearly showed thad HRE had marked in vitro antioxidant and antiradical activites.
  8 3,989 101
Prevention of high-fructose diet induced insulin resistance by Nyctanthes arbortristis and Calotropis gigantea in rats
Nanu Rathod, I Raghuveer, HR Chitme, Chandra Ramesh
July 2009, 5(19):58-63
We have investigated the effect of Nyctanthes arbortristis (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and Calotropis gigantea leaves and flower chloroform (10, 20, 50 mg/kg) and Calotropis gigantea flower petroleum ether extracts (10, 20, 50 mg/kg) in high-fructose diet induced insulin resistance in rats. The fasting serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured in blood serum for 27 days of treatment. The fasting serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index (FIRI) levels of high-fructose diet (control) rats significantly (P<0.001 vs. normal) increased, like wise, serum triglyceride, cholesterols significantly (P<0.001-P<0.01 vs. normal) increased. The Nyctanthes arbortristis and Calotropis gigantea leaves and flower treatment prevent significantly (P<0.001-P<0.01) vs. control) increase serum glucose, insulin, levels in high fructose-diet treated rats, except in glucose Calotropis gigantea leaves 50 mg/kg, while significantly (P<0.05-P<0.01 vs. control) decreased in triglyceride, cholesterol, except in triglyceride Nyctanthes arbortristis leaves 50 mg and in cholesterol Nyctanthes arbortristis leaves and flowers 50 mg. Further more, high-fructose diet (control) had higher in FIRI (P<0.001) than normal. In contrast, Nyctanthes arbortristis and Calotropis gigantea significantly (P<0.001) decreased FIRI in the high-fructose diet treated rats.
  7 4,610 193
A pentacyclic triterpenoid possessing anti-inflammatory activity from the fruits of Dregea volubilis
M Biswas, K Biswas, AK Ghosh, PK Haldar
July 2009, 5(19):64-68
The aim of the study is to find anti-inflammatory activity of the compound obtained from the petroleum ether extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis. Fruits of Dregea volubilis were extracted by petroleum ether and through column chromatography led to obtain a compound. The structure of the compound was determined on the basis of IR, MASS, NMR (PMR, CMR and DEPT) spectroscopic analysis. The compound was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats using acute carageenan induced paw oedema. The petroleum ether extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis Benth led to isolation and characterization of a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound designated as taraxerol and characterized as D- friedoolean- 14- en, 3 ol [Figure 1]. It has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats. Anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats has been shown by taraxerol obtained from the petroleum ether extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis.
  6 2,775 143
Hypoglycemic activity of the bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. kurz.
S Mondal, GK Dash
July 2009, 5(19):42-45
Diabetes, the most prevailing metabolic disorder is attracting present research attention towards it. In the present study, the various extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Family: Rubiaceae) was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity on adult Wistar albino rats at dose levels of 300 mg/kg p.o. each using normoglycaemic, glucose loaded and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg) was used as reference standard for activity comparison. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract was found to produce promising results that is comparable to that of the reference standard glibenclamide. The preliminary phytochemical examination of the methanol extract revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The present work justifies the use of the bark in the folklore treatment in diabetes.
  6 4,587 155
Effect of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes on ethanol - induced gastric ulcers in rats
LSR Arambewela, LDAM Arawwawala, WD Ratnasooriya
July-September 2009, 5(19):226-231
A study to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot water extract (HWE) of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes was carried out. Three doses (500, 750, 1000 mg/kg) of HWE was evaluated for gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. Oral administration of HWE provided dose dependent (r2 = 0.98) and significant (P< 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of HWE was superior to that of cimetidine, the reference drug. The HWE significantly (P< 0.05) inhibited gastric volume, acidity (total and free) and significantly (P< 0.05) increased the gastric pH. On the other hand, gastric mucosal secretion remained unaltered. Further, HWE possessed significant (P< 0.05) antihistamine activity. The HWE was well tolerated: no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity (in terms of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) or renotoxicity (as judged by serum urea and creatinie). It is concluded that HWE of A. calcarata rhizome has strong and safe gastroprotective activity.
  6 3,802 114
Efficacy Study of Sunscreens Containing Various Herbs for Pro­tecting Skin from UVA and UVB Sunrays
Shweta Kapoor, Swarnlata Saraf
July-September 2009, 5(19):238-248
Currently, no standard protocols and objective measures are existing in present system for quality analysis of herbal sunscreens. Present work is an attempt to compile rapid, non-invasive technologies to investigate the sunscreens containing various herbs like aloe vera, jojoba, cucumber, wheat germ, olive etc for their efficacy in protecting skin from UVA and UVB sunrays. Commercial herbal sunscreens containing herbs aloe vera, basil, green tea, etc and bearing SPF range 10-40 coded as HS1- HS14, were analyzed by subjective, photostability and other parameters evaluation. All sunscreens shown pH [6.09±0.01 to 8.30±0.03], Saponification value [6.01±0.2 to 207.57±0.3], Acid value [1.56±0.6 to 17.27±0.5], Ash value [0.01±1 to 0.08±2 gm], Spreadibility [96±0.9 to 98±0.9 %], Layer thickness [28.99±1.55 to 32.25±1.00 %]. Viscosity profile showed the pseudoplastic behaviour of all formulations. Phase separation was observed in HS1 to HS4, HS7& HS9 to HS12 during stability study. None of them were found to be irritant [erythema score = 0] and have microbial count load in the range of to 31±1 to 34±2 CFU/gm. 98±5 % of all sunscreens has shown SPF as per labelled claim by In-vitro and In-vivo method. HS 6, 9, 11 were found to be unstable in UVA range. HS8, most preferred by volunteers after Psychometric evaluation. Results of the study scientifically verified that herbs are having enough potential to protect skin to protect skin from harmful sunrays and it is worthwhile for consumers to use herbal sunscreens. Overall study is useful to substantiate product claims.
  6 56,739 768
Gastric ulcer healing activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in rats
WD Ratnasooriya, TSP Fernando
July-September 2009, 5(19):260-265
This study examined the gastric ulcer healing potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis) using Sri Lankan high grown Dust grade No: 1 black tea in rat acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model. Three oral doses (84, 167 or 501 mg/ml) of black tea brew (BTB) made according to ISO recommendations were used in the evaluation of gastric ulcer healing activity. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent gastric ulcer healing activity (in terms of reduction in gastric ulcer area). This effect had a rapid onset (with in 14 days). The gastric ulcer healing activity of BTB was however inferior (by 9 fold) to omeparazole, the reference drug. BTB displayed in vitro antioxidant activity (using DPPH assay; by 2985-3923 Trolox equivalents ìg/l), and also inhibited in vitro nitric oxide production (3-78 %). In addition, BTB had antihistamine activity (by wheal test; by 33.5%) and increased the gastric pH (from 3.3 to 5.9) and impaired the gastric acid output (by 69%). It is concluded that black tea possessed strong, oral gastric ulcer healing activity which is mediated via multiple mechanisms.
  5 7,836 159
Antiulcerogenic effects of Gymnosporia rothiana(Celastraceae) against different experimental models
AS Jain, SJ Surana
July 2009, 5(19):100-104
Gymnosporia rothiana is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antiulcer property of various extracts of leaves of Gymnosporia rothiana at different dose levels in ethanol induced and indomethacin induced gastric ulcer models. It was observed that oral administration of all the extracts shows significant reduction in ulcer lesion index as well as increase in volume and pH of gastric content in both experimental models, being petroleum ether extract the most effective at dose of 250 mg/kg; it significantly reduced gastric lesion index (70.06%), in comparison to omeprazole (71.20%) and methanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg (67.22%). Increased gastric mucosal defense mechanism by petroleum ether extract is probably due to its high levels of terpenoids like β amyrin, lupeol, friedelin. The present results clearly shows antiulcer effect of Gymnosporia rothiana against various irritants has been mainly due to cytoprotective effect mediated through prostaglandin and partly due to free radical scavenging activity.
  5 3,270 107
Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of Talinum portulacifolium leaf extracts in streptozotocin diabetic rats: A dose-dependent study
Ramesh K Babu, K Vinay, SK Sameena, SV Prasad, S Swapna, Appa Ch Rao
July 2009, 5(19):1-10
Hexane, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Talinum portulacifolium leaves were prepared and given individually at different doses to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats after an overnight fast. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0,1,2,3,4,5 and 6 h after the treatment. The hexane extract at a dosage of 0.5g/kg b.w has shown maximal blood glucose lowering effect (64.7%) in diabetes rats. The same dosage did not produce any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The antihyperglycemic activity of hexane extract of Talinum portulacifolium leaves was significantly higher than that of glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. All the extracts exhibited dose dependent scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, nitric oxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Further, all extracts had relatively lower reducing power, compared to that of ascorbic acid. The total phenolic content of hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts were found to be 61, 100 and 114 mg/gm of the dry extract respectively. TLC of the above extracts using the DPPH as a spraying reagent revealed yellow spots against purple background indicating the presence of potent antioxidant compounds. In conclusion hexane extract of Talinum portulacifolium leaves possess both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activites, while the ethanol and aqueous extracts possess only antioxidant activity.
  4 3,969 148
Antistress and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia
Sumanth Meera, Chowdary G Nagarjuna
July 2009, 5(19):69-73
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antistress and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (MC). Antistress activity was evaluated by measuring the swimming time in mice and cold immobilization induced stress for 10 days in rats, using Withania somnifera (100mg/kg) as reference standard. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by carbon clearance assay and percentage adhesion of neutrophils to nylon fibers using Levamisole as reference standard. The degree of protection was determined by measuring gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights and by measuring levels of serum glucose, AST and ALT. Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into 4 groups such as normal control, MC lower dose (450 mg/kg, p.o), MC higher dose (900 mg/kg, p.o) and standard group, treated with standard drug Levamisole (50 mg/kg, p.o). MC increased the swimming time in mice significantly (P<0.001) and the results are comparable to that of standard Withania somnifera. MC has also significantly (P<0.001) reversed the cold immobilization induced changes in glucose, AST, ALT, ulcer score, weight of adrenal gland and spleen. MC improves the phagocytic index in a dose dependent manner. MC at higher dose significantly (P<0.001) increased the percentage of adhesion of Neutrophils to nylon fibers when compared with the normal control animals. The results were comparable with that of standard drug levamisole. Momordica charantia has significant antistress, immunomodulatory activity.
  4 5,738 256
A pentacyclic triterpenoid possessing analgesic activity from the fruits of Dregea volubilis
M Biswas, K Biswas, AK Ghosh, PK Haldar
July 2009, 5(19):90-92
Fruits of Dregea volubilis were extracted by petroleum ether and subjected to column chromatography for obtaining the pure compound. The structure was determined on the basis of IR, MASS, NMR (PMR, CMR and DEPT) spectroscopic analysis. The compound was screened for analgesic activity in swiss albino mice by inducing writhing reflex with acetic acid. The petroleum ether extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis Benth led to isolation of a pentacyclic triterpenoid designated as taraxerol and characterized as D- friedoolean- 14- en, 3 ol [Figure 1]. In vitro analgesic activity has been shown by the isolated taraxerol. The compound taraxerol obtained from the petroleum ether extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis showed analgesic activity in swiss albino mice.
  4 3,088 125
Formulation and evaluation of topical polyherbal antiacne gels containing Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera
Gowda Bhaskar, Shariff Arshia, S.R.B Priyadarshini
July 2009, 5(19):93-99
The objective of the study was to develop a topical poly herbal gel for the treatment of mild acne vulgaris. Aqueous extracts of Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera were formulated in an aqueous based carbopol-934(1%w/w) gel system. Preformulation studies on solubility, partition co-efficient, MIC, MBC were determined along with compatibility studies using a validated HPLC method. Six formulations of the gel were prepared by varying the proportions of polymers and evaluated for their physicochemical properties like pH, spreadability, viscosity and microbial assay. Based on these tests, formulation F-6 containing 1% carbopol-934 was selected as best formulation and carried over to in-vitro drug diffusion studies wherein it showed Cumulative Drug Release of 81.03% at the end of 8 hours with a flux of 0.0879 mg/cm2/hr.The microbial assay of all the formulations demonstrated better inhibitory activity against Propionibacterium acne and Staphylococcus epidermidis compared to the marketed clindamycin phosphate gel in equivalent amounts of application. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that aqueous extract of Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera can be formulated in an aqueous based gel system for topical therapy of mild acne vulgaris.
  4 19,959 745
Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodorahook. in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Arjun Patra, Shivesh Jha, Alakh N Sahu
July 2009, 5(19):51-54
The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was studied on glucose loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In both the tests, the extract has shown significant and considerable antidiabetic effect in a dose dependent manner. On oral administration of the extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight, the reduction of blood glucose level was 22.9% after 4th hr and on continuous administration the reduction in blood glucose level after 21 days was 49.9 and 56.8% with dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight respectively. Aqueous extract of leaves of E. citriodora exhibited significant antidiabetic activity which was comparable with the standard drug Glibenclamide.
  3 3,918 180
Isolation, characterization and microvascular activity of anthocyanins from Ficus Racemosa fruits
RV Sarpate, SV Tupkari, TK Deore, BG Chandak, SC Nalle
July 2009, 5(19):78-82
Anthocyanins (ACN) are part of a large and wide spread group of plant constituents known collectively as flavanoids. In the present research work anthocyanins were extracted from Ficus racemosa fruit. Family: Moraceae, using acidified methanol (1% HCL in methanol). The extracted anthocyanins were isolated and purified using the Amberllite - XAD4 resin. Anthocyanins were characterized by means of Chromatographic and Spectral data obtained from HPLC and UV Spectroscopy. Two major pigments identified were Peonidin -3-glucoside and Pelargonidin -3-glucoside. Peaks for anthocyanins, which are present in very low amount, and in less concentration, can be verified by means of commercially available external standards. The samples were diluted in the mixture of methanol and formic acid just before the injection on the column and separated on Lichrospher-100 Reversed phase C18 end capped column (5 micron) 125mm x 4mm using gradient solvent system consisting of 5Mm of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile . DAD detector was employed at 520 nm for anthocyanins. An Ficus racemosa fruit anthocyanosides preparation (equivalent to 30% of anthocyanidins) demonstrated significant vasoprotective effect in rabbits, the skin capillary permeability increase, due to chloroform, was reduced after i.p. (25-100 mg/kg) anthocyanosides. Comparison was made between the action of the methanol extract and a known protective microvascular drug proxerutin (25 mg/kg). The mixed of anthocyanosides was more active that the proxerutin.
  3 3,900 153
Antidiarrheal activity of Cynodon Dactylon. pers
DS Ravindra Babu, V Neeharika, V Pallavi, Madhava B Reddy
July 2009, 5(19):23-27
Cynodon dactylon pers (fam. Poaceae) whole plant is used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. In the present investigation hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Cynodon dactylon whole plant were tested for anti diarrheal activity on castor oil induced diarrhea, gastro intestinal motility by charcoal meal and entero pooling models in albino rats. Methanol extract exhibited considerable reduction in inhibition of castor oil induced diarrhea. Methanol extract also showed a significant decrease in gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal and decrease in weight of intestinal contents in enteropooling models. These results indicate that the plant possess good anti diarrheal activity.
  3 6,462 229
Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus
DP Dissanayake, DTU Abeytunga, NS Vasudewa, WD Ratnasooriya
July-September 2009, 5(19):266-271
The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Pleurotus ostreatus was established using Thiobarbituric (TBARS) assay. Three solvent extracts of P. ostreatus namely, the acetone, dichloromethane and hexane extracts were used. All three extracts showed inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant indexes at 1.25 mg/ml concentration of acetone, dichloromethane and hexane were 38%, 43% and 36% respectively. Ergosterol was isolated and characterized from the dichloromethane extract. The antioxidant index of ergosterol at 1.25 mg/ml was 73% when tested using the same method. There exist a possibility that ergosterol can inhibit the peroxidation of common fatty acids present in egg yolk substrate (which was used for TBARS assay). The relative susceptibilities for peroxidation of ergosterol, linoleic acid and linolenic acid were investigated using computational calculations. It was found that the addition of an oxygen molecule to ergosterol is kinetically much more feasible than the addition of the same to linoleic or linolenic acids. The energy barriers for peroxidation with triplet oxygen at HF/3-21 G level of theory for ergosterol and linoleic acid (trans, trans) were 231.85 kJmol1 and 420.52 kJmol-1 respectively. It was also found that the former reaction is thermodynamically less favorable compared to the latter. The results from theoretical investigation support the experimental observation of the capability of lipid peroxidation inhibition by ergosterol.
  3 5,579 222
Phytochemical and Microscopic Analysis of Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae)
S Chandrakala C Karthik, Venkatasubramanian Padma
July-September 2009, 5(19):272-278
Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana that are used as Vidari in Ayurveda are important ingredients in popular Ayurvedic nutraceutical products such as Chyavanprash. The objective of the current study was to develop distinct phytochemical and microscopy protocols and standards that can be used in quality control of the crude drug. Chromatographic analyses of methanol extracts of the tuber gave typical fingerprints, where Scopoletin, a standard reference marker, resolved at Rf 0.56 under TLC and at Rt 21.5 min under HPLC conditions. Three bright blue fluorescent bands at Rf 0.70, 0.56 and 0.45 under the TLC conditions were characteristic of the raw drug. Scopoletin was quantified to be 0.029-0.034 % using the HPTLC and HPLC methods. Powder microscopic features of authentic tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana were characterized by the presence of cluster crystals, simple and compound starch grains with a range of 10-50 µm and orangish-brown cell fragments of laticiferous elements. Longitudinal sections showed the laticifers (latex cells) of articulated anastomosing type and the transverse section of the tubers were mostly characterized by the specific successive cortical cambial activity.
  3 6,888 195
Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Cassia sophera linn
DH Nagore, VK Ghosh, MJ Patil
July 2009, 5(19):109-118
Cassia sophera from the family caesalpiniaceae is being used in local traditional medicine for asthma and bronchitis. Powdered leaves of C. sophera was extracted with ethanol and subjected for sequential fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol respectively. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of flavonoids and antraquinone glycosides in all of the fractions. In the present study, antiasthmatic activity of parent ethanol extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions of C. sophera were evaluated. For the evaluation, carrageenan induced paw edema, histamine induced bronchoconstriction, clonidine and haloperidol induced catalepsy, milk induced leukocytosis, and eosinophilia and passive paw anaphylaxis has performed. The paw edema significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by the parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction at 4th hr with the percent inhibition 54.2%, 50.4%, 44.3%, 60.7% respectively. In the present study C. sophera significantly (P<0.05) protected the bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs against histamine-induced bronchospasm. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions showed 62.7%, 60%, 55% and 64% protection at 4th hour respectively. The clonidine induced catalepsy was found to be inhibited significantly (P<0.05) by parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction at 120 min (144.00±4.830, 150.50±9.773 175.33, ±13.990, 142.50 ±4.233 sec). The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions failed to revert the haloperidol induced catalepsy. In milk induced leukocytosis, milk treated group showed 4575.0 ±117.44 per cu mm leukocyte. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions reduced leukocyte count (1550.0±78.528, 2083.3±35.746, 2750.0±73.030, 1266.7±72.648 per cu mm resp.) and eosinophil count (38.333±2.216, 82.333±2.1246, 2.500±1.057, 40.500±2.078 per cu mm resp.) where milk treated group showed 137.50 ±3.471 per cu mm of eosinophils. The animals pretreated with parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction showed significant (p<0.005) inhibition in reducing paw edema in passive paw anaphylaxis with the percent inhibition 49.7%, 25.7%, 38.0%, 46.5% resp. In the present investigation, it can be concluded from the result obtained that C. sophera possesses significant antiasthmatic activity.
  3 6,095 245
Hypolipidemic activity of gum ghatti of Anogeissus latifolia
K.M.M Parvathi, CK Ramesh, V Krishna, M Paramesha, IJ Kuppast
July 2009, 5(19):11-14
Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia poses no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gum ghatti of Anogeissus lalifolia on serum lipid levels of albino rats. Rats were made hyperlipidemic by the oral administration of cholesterol (400mg/kg body weight/day) along with cholic acid (50mg/kg) in coconut oil. The hypolipidemic effect was compared with control. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with gum ghatti at 250 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum triglyceride (82.75±0.63) only and there was no significant changes either in serum total cholesterol or elevation in HDL. Whereas, at 500 and 750 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (72.85±0.60, 68.17±0.95) and serum triglyceride (78.92±0.34, 75.93±1.05). Further, the 750 mg/kg dose has also exhibited significant elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (41.13±0.37).
  2 4,529 125
Antibacterial and radical scavenging activity of fatty acids from Paullinia pinnata L.
Annan Kofi, Gbedema Stephen, Adu Francis
July 2009, 5(19):119-123
Twelve fatty acids identified from the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata L. root extract by the use of Gas Chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometer were screened for antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as three resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus SA1199B, XU212 and RN4220 resistant to norfloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin respectively. Using the 96-well microtitre plate method, azelaic acid (a dicarboxylic acid), showed the highest activity against all organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentration range of 32-256 μg/ml while palmitic, oleic, eicosanoic and stearic acids also showed weak to moderate activity against Staph. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. However, docosanoic, tetradecanoic and eicosenoic acids had no activity against all organisms tested. The results also indicated that while the crude methanol extract possess potent antioxidant activity by bleaching DPPH radical (IC 50 of 3.8μg/ml), the fatty acids did not show any significant radical scavenging action.
  2 4,406 149
Evaluation of antistress, anxiolytic and hypnotic activity of vedic calm, a polyherbal formulation
KN Bharathi, N Sivaramaiah, Chowdary G Nagarjuna, AVSSS Gupta
July 2009, 5(19):124-130
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antistress, annxiolytic and hypnotic activity of Vedic calm, a polyherbal formulation comprising of Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Evolvulus alsinides and many other related plants extracts, all of which are classified in ayurveda as rasayanas which are reported to promote physical and mental health and also possess depressant activity. Antistress activity was evaluated by cold immobilization induced stress for 10 days in rats using Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg) as reference standard. Antianxiety activity was evaluated by elevated plus maze and light and dark box in acute study and elevated plus maze in chronic study of 10 days in rats, using diazepam (2 mg/kg) as reference standard. Hypnotic activity was evaluated by potentiation of thiopental induced sleeping time in mice. Stress was evidenced by occurrence of gastric ulcer, elevation of adrenals weight, liver weight, serum glucose, AST, ALT, cholesterol, WBC and reduction of spleen weight. Vedic calm pretreatment in rats with doses of 135 mg/kg, 270 mg/kg p.o. and standard drug Withania somnifera significantly reversed all the changes those were due to stress. The Vedic calm at 270 mg/kg significantly increased the time spent and number of entries into open arms in elevated plus maze and increased the time spent and number of entries into light box in light and dark box model. The Vedic calm at a dose of 390 mg/kg significantly potentiated duration of thiopental induced sleeping time in mice. The Vedic calm showed significant antistress, anxiolytic and hypnotic activity.
  2 6,559 190
Phytochemical and anti-ulcer investigations of the whole plant extract of Neregamia alata wight & Arn. in albino rat model
M Purushothaman, R Dhanapal, M Balakrishnan, S Srinivasan, C Anbarasu, R Sriram
July 2009, 5(19):19-22
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the chemical constituents and anti-ulcer profile of the methanolic extract of Neregamia alata Wight & Arn. (MENA) whole plant in albino rats. The phytochemical examination of methanolic extract of whole plant of Neregamia alata was performed by the standard methods. MENA at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was administered to evaluate anti-ulcer activity by using pyloric ligation (PL) and hypothermic-restraint stress (HRS) induced gastric ulcer models in Albino rats. MENA, at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg were found to be protective (36.47, 45.86 and 75.02% respectively), in PL induced ulcer models and significantly reduced free and total acidity by P Neregamia alata as a potent anti-ulcer agent.
  2 3,148 119
Antimicrobial activity of Zhumeria majdae Rech.F.& Wendelbo essential oil against different microorganisms from Iran
Mahboubi Mohaddese, Kazempour Nastaran
July 2009, 5(19):105-108
The monotypic Zhumeria majdae Rech.F. & Wendelbo was recently described as the first member of new genus Zhumeria (Lamiaceae). In Iranian folk medicine, the leaves of plant were used for antiseptic properties. The antimicrobial activity of Zhumeria majdae essential oil was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms including gram negative, gram positive, yeast and fungi using disc diffusion method and micro broth dilution assay. Generally, the oil exhibited similar levels of antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms but some microorganisms appear to be more sensitive. In particular, oil showed significant power against Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus. Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC and MBC values 0.5, 1 μl ml -1 was the most sensitive among the tested microorganisms. The oil showed bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerugenes. The oil showed inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among Gram negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis among Gram positive ones and Aspergillus niger among fungi and yeast were the most resistant to the essential oil.
  2 3,393 101
Synergistic effect of Withania somnifera dunal and L-dopa in the inhiition of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice
Lal Gupta Girdhari, Chand Rana Avtar
July 2009, 5(19):46-50
The possible synergism between WS and dopamine precursor L-dopa to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy was investigated by using standard bar test in mice. The effect of WS (20-200 mg/kg, oral), L-dopa (20-200 mg/kg, oral) plus carbidopa and combination of subeffective doses of WS (20 or 50 mg/kg, oral) prior to L-dopa (20, 50 or 100 mg/kg, oral) plus carbidopa was assessed in haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy. L-dopa and carbidopa combination was always administered in 10:1 ratio. WS (100 or 200 mg/kg, oral) and L-dopa (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, oral) plus carbidopa treated groups showed a dose dependent reduction in cataleptic scores. Subeffective doses of WS (20 or 50 mg/kg, oral) prior to L-dopa (20, 50 or 100 mg/kg, oral) also potentiated the anticataleptic effect of L-dopa. These results indicate that subeffective doses of WS enhance the anticataleptic actions of L-dopa and the possibility of using WS as adjunctive therapy to reduce the doses and the adverse effects of dopamine precursor in Parkinson's disease.
  2 6,654 148
Study the relative effect of spironolactone and different solvent extract of Tibulus terrestrison urolithiatic rats
H Satish, Dang Raman, Devi Kshama, BG Shivananda, KA Shridhar
July 2009, 5(19):83-89
Hyperoxaluria is the foremost initiating cause for urolithiasis in renal cavities, where urolithiasis is a common urinary tract disorder. There is much expectation of finding active anti-urolithiatic compounds from indigenous plant as there are still uses in therapeutic despite the progress in conventional chemistry and pharmacology in producing effecting drugs. Most patients still have to undergo surgery to get rid of painful disease. In our present study on anti-urolithiatic agents from plants which was compared with synthetic chemical substance. As we have selected the sequential extracts of Tribulus terrestris with pet ether, chloroform, alcohol and water and compared the activity with the synthetic steroidal drug spironolactone which was used on the lithiatic induced rats and estimated the effect of the extract by doing the invo and invitro analysis alongside by histopathological studies and found the ethanolic extract of the drug was found to be effective than other treatment.
  1 4,274 121
Bronchodilatory effect of Sphaeranthus indicus linn against allergen induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs
RV Sarpate, TK Deore, SV Tupkari
July 2009, 5(19):74-77
The methanolic extract of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn and its various fractions were tested for their bronchodilatory effect against histamine induced acute bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The methanolic extract and its fractions viz. petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate exhibited significant protection against bronchospasm, induced by histamine in guinea pigs. However significant (p<0.001) protection was exhibited by methanolic extract which was comparable with Chlorophenarmine maleate (2mg/kg) included as the standard in the study. The results of present study suggest that, the plant Sphaeranthus indicus shows the bronchodilatory activity.
  1 3,395 161
Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz
S Mondal, GK Dash, S Acharyya, DK Brahma, S Bal
July 2009, 5(19):28-31
The diuretic and laxative activity of different extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz (Family: Rubiaceae) were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The chloroform and methanol extracts produced significant diuretic and laxative activity. On the other hand, the petroleum ether extract did not reveal significant activity. Urinary levels of sodium, potassium (by flame photometry) and chloride (by titrimetry) were estimated.
  1 4,519 155
Black Table Olives from Northeastern Region of Turkey: The Composition and Nutritive Value
Ercisli Sezai
July-September 2009, 5(19):183-188
Six olive cultivars (Butko, Gorvela, Kara Sati, Kizil Sati, Kizil Butko and Otur) were investigated for the first time in terms of total phenolic content, oil percentage, fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. Analysis was performed on the flesh part of the raw black olive fruits. The total phenolic content was estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antioxidant activity with β-carotene linoleate model system. The fatty acid analysis was performed by gas chromatography. There were statistically important differences among olive cultivars in terms of all searched parameters. The fatty acid results showed that all cultivars characterized by high level of oleic acid (63.49-77.18%). The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was the highest in cv. Kara Sati as 73.88% and 53.46 βg GAE/mg dry weight basis. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of phenolics found in samples.
  1 3,086 89
Galangoisoflavonoid Isolated from Rhizomes of Alpinia Galanga
SB Jaju, NH Indurwade, DM Sakarkar, NK Fuloria, M Ali, SP Basu
July-September 2009, 5(19):209-212
Galangoisoflavonoside was isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga. Methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga was subjected to column chromatography and eluted with ethyl acetate-methanol (9:1) to yield compound (AG 12) Galangoisoflavonoside. The structure of newer compound was elucidated by various spectral techniques (UV, IR, 1 HNMR, 13 CNMR, and MS). Chemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga furnished a new flavonoid (AG 12) Galangoisoflavonoside. Isolation of compound (AG 12) Galangoisoflavonoside in Alpinia galanga rhizomes is being reported for the first time.
  1 2,618 94
Hepatoprotective activity of Baliospermum montanum (willd) Muell.-Arg. in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride: In vivo and in vitro studies
SV Suresh Kumar, SH Mishra
July-September 2009, 5(19):196-202
Rats and primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used as the in vivo and in vitro models to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of sub-fractions from total methanol extract of Baliospermum montanum. Carbon tetrachloride was selected as hepatotoxin. Silymarin was the reference hepatoprotective agent. In the in vivo study, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, albumin together with total protein and histopathological examination were the criteria for the evidences of liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride caused the alterations in all the biochemical parameters and centrilobular necrosis. Among the Ethyl methyl ketone and methanol sub-fractions tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg), methanol sub-fraction (150 mg/kg) of the bio-active total methanol extract and silymarin (100 mg/kg) enhanced liver cell recovery by restoring all the altered biochemical parameters back to normal. In the in vitro study, release of transaminases, total protein together and hepatocyte viability were the criteria. Primary cultures of hepatocytes were treated with carbon tetra chloride (10 μl/ml), and various concentrations (100, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) of ethyl methyl ketone and methanol sub-fractions of total methanol extract and silymarin (100 μg/ml). Carbon tetrachloride reduced the hepatocyte viability and also altered the biochemical parameters, which were restored significantly (P<0.05) by ethyl methyl ketone (1000 μg/ml) and methanol (500 and 1000 μg/ml) sub-fractions. These results suggest that Baliospermum montanum possess the hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in both rats and primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.
  - 4,147 134
Investigation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of Ballota andreuzziana
Abdelshafeek A Khaled, Daboob A Ahmed
July-September 2009, 5(19):203-208
Investigation on Ballota andreuzziana (Family Labiatae) for flavonoids led to isolation of two aglycones from ethyl acetate fraction which were identified as 7-methoxy luteolin and 6,7-dimethoxy scutellarein, in addition to three glycosides known as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, 6, 4'-dimethoxy scutellarein-7-O-glucoside and quercetin-7-O-rhamno-glucoside from butanol fraction. Antimicrobial studies revealed that, butanol extract exhibited the marked activity against M0. Phlei, S. aureus and C. albicans (I.Z. =16.3, 11.3, and 10.7mm, Conc.=150mg/ml) respectively. While, chloroform extract also showed the better activity against B. subtilis (I.Z. =11.0mm, Conc.=150mg/ml). Furthermore aqueous extracts exhibited no effects at all against all tested organisms at all concentrations also, all tested Gram negative bacteria and the fungus A. niger are resistance to all concentrations of tested extracts.
  - 3,459 105
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity: Effect of Polyherbal Formulation
Jitendra Vaghasiya, Yagnik Bhalodia, Shivkumar Rathod
July-September 2009, 5(19):232-237
To evaluate effect of Polyherbal Formulation (PHF) on drug induced hepatotoxicity in rats and assessment of any possibility of co administration of PHF along with such hepatotoxic drug. Hepatotoxicity in rat was induced by Methotrexate (1mg/kg p.o./week for 3 weeks) and protective effect of PHF (0.25ml/kg/p.o. and 0.5ml/kg/p.o. either along with drug or followed by inducing hepatotoxicity) was measured by estimating marker enzymes for liver function like Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase and . glutamic transpeptidase. Oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutase and catalase. Protein profile likes Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, Total albumin and Total protein. Histopathological study was carried out to confirm hepatotoxicity. Methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity characterized by significant (P<0.001) increase in marker enzymes for liver function and oxidative stress. Protein profile significantly depleted. Administration of PHF either along with Methotrexate or followed by inducing hepatotoxicity significantly improved (P<0.001) the level of marker enzymes for liver function, oxidative stress and depleted proteins profile. The study suggests protective role of PHF in drug induced hepatotoxicity and it can be utilized to treat the hepatotoxicity with long-term clinically useful drugs.
  - 3,472 143
Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India
Deepa T Vasudevan, Kavitha R Dinesh, S Gopalakrishnan
July 2009, 5(19):15-18
In the present study selected medicinal plant samples used in the preparation of Indian herbal medicinal products were analysed, after nitric acid digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples are procured by three method.1.Self collected from medicinal plant garden with the help of experts.2.Purchased from local drug collectors.3. Purchased from raw material stores. Result shows that 33% of sample analysed were contain toxic levels of cadmium, 40% were contain toxic levels of lead and no sample posses arsenic above the limit. (limit of cadmium, mercury and lead were 0.3,0.5 and 10 μg/g, respectively) PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.
  - 4,346 132
Role of Plant Growth Regulators for Improving Andrographolide in Andrographis Paniculata
PP Gudhate, DP Lokhande, KN Dhumal
July-September 2009, 5(19):249-253
The present study was aimed at improving the content of therapeutically active principle, andrographolide and whole plant biomass of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall.Ex Nees, by foliar application of plant growth regulators. The pot cultured plants were treated with Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole acetic acid (IAA), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Benzyl amino purine (BAP), in the concentration of 25, 50, and 100mg/l each. The plants sprayed with distilled water were maintained as control. The foliar application of these growth regulators was initiated at 30 DAT and continued upto flowering stage at an interval of 10 days. The HPLC analysis revealed that, application of IAA-50mg/l was very effective to enhance the andrographolide content (45%), which was followed by NAA-50mg/l (37%) over control. The whole plant biomass (Panchang) of Andrographis is used in medicine and hence fresh and dry biomass was also determined. The results indicated that NAA (Fresh Weight: 221%, Dry Weight: 155%) and IAA (Fresh Weight: 215%, Dry Weight: 120%) emerged out as the best treatments for improving fresh and dry biomass over control. The treatments of IAA and NAA (50mg/l) were found to be most effective for improving whole plant biomass as well as andrographolide content which can be recommended for the growers.
  - 5,111 205
Hyrdoalcoholic Root Bark Extract of Salacia oblonga Prevented Mitomycin-C Induced Sperm Abnormality in Wistar Rats.
Navneet Kumar Singh, Arghya Biswas, Syed Imam Rabbani, Kshama Devi, Salma Khanam
July-September 2009, 5(19):254-259
The extract of root bark of Salacia oblonga (SO) belonging to the family Celastraceae was tested for the anti-mutagenic activity using sperm abnormality test in Wistar rats. The hydroalcoholic extract (0.5 and 1 gm/kg, b.w, p.o. daily for 7 days) was evaluated against Mitomycin-C (MMC-2 mg/kg, b.w, i.p.) induced testicular toxicity by estimating the sperm shape abnormality and sperm count. The sampling was done after 48 hours and 72 hours of the clastogen treatment. The antioxidant activity of the SO was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase. The results indicated that prior treatment of SO had suppressed the changes produced by MMC. SO at a dose of 1.0 gm/kg bw had shown significant (p<0.01) inhibition in the sperm shape abnormality and sperm count in both the time intervals, while the lower dose (0.5 gm/kg, b.w) showed inhibitory effect mainly at 48 hr duration compared to the MMC group. The results also indicated that SO has improved (p<0.01) the status of serum antioxidant enzymes compared with the MMC group. The data from the study suggests that SO possess antimutagenic effect against MMC and the activity could be due its antioxidant potential.
  - 5,911 138
An analysis of determinants influencing use of ayurvedic medication in Pune region utilizing a questionnaire survey instrument
Vyawahare Neeraj, Ahuja Sakshi, Anand Esha, Mulani Irshad, Mundada Prashant, Gadkari Manasi, Deshmukh Vaibhav
July 2009, 5(19):32-35
A questionnaire survey for the analysis of determinants influencing use of Ayurvedic medication was conducted amongst 2000 people from various categories approached at fifty different medical stores in Pune region, asking them to tick the option that they consider while using Ayurvedic medication. Results were calculated using descriptive analysis. 37.30% of people regularly consume Ayurvedic medication up to 50% of their total medication, wherein safety (52%) and faith (33.50%) were found to be the prime reasons for its consumption. The study also found that 58.45% of surveyed people follow physician's prescription and don't accept substituted medicine given by the chemist. A comparatively large number of people (41.55%) go for self medication influenced by various parameters. The use of Ayurvedic medication in pediatric patients and co- administration with allopathic medicine by qualified people is fairly less. The survey revealed that consumption of Ayurvedic medication in Pune region is increasing, wherein safety and faith are important parameters, however, like allopathic medication; people usually stick to the prescription issued by the physician. The increasing trend of self medication and lack of knowledge of herb drug interaction especially in non graduates are the major concerns need to be addressed for better outcome of the therapy.
  - 3,515 97
Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of alcoholic extract of Chonemorpha fragrans root in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats
VS Shende, VA Sawant, AO Turuskar, VK Chatap, C Vijaya
July 2009, 5(19):36-41
In light of traditional claim of Chonemorpha fragrans in the treatment of diabetes were carryout evaluate its effect on rats. Alcoholic extract of Chonemorpha fragrans root (CF.alc.extract) administered orally at dose 100 mg/kg and 200mg/kg in different condition such as normal, glucose over loaded in normal rats, and alloxan induced diabetic rats. At dose 200 mg/kg per oral (p.o.) was produce significantly reduce blood glucose level in fasted normal rat and against glucose over loaded rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats at single dose as well as twelve day treatment. Histopathology studies on pancreas alloxan induced diabetic rats inflammatory changes were detected in pancreatic islets results from selectively destroy of insulin producing β-cells. These changes are dose-dependently inhibited by CF.alc.extract and gliclazide
  - 3,388 120