Elemental profiling of smokeless tobacco samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, their chemometric analysis and assessment of health hazards
Hassan A Alhazmi1, Waquar Ahsan1, Ibraheem M Attafi2, Asaad Khalid3, Siddig I Abdelwahab3, Mohammad Al Bratty1, Shahnaz Sultana4
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy; Smokeless Tobacco Research Group, Substance Abuse Research Centre, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
2 Poison Control and Medical Forensic Chemistry Center, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
3 Smokeless Tobacco Research Group, Substance Abuse Research Centre, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
4 Smokeless Tobacco Research Group, Substance Abuse Research Centre; Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Hassan A Alhazmi
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, P. O. Box: 114, Jazan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST), locally called shammah, is a form of tobacco that is widely used in Middle Eastern countries, including Saudi Arabia. Objective: A total of 21 ST samples were collected from the southern province of Jazan for elemental analysis. Materials and Methods: These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine their element concentrations. Chemometric multivariate analysis such as hierarchical cluster analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were performed for better understanding and interpretation of the data. Concentrations obtained were used to determine the users' daily and weekly intake of elements and were compared with the acceptable daily intake and provisional tolerable weekly intake. Results: Metal ions present in maximum concentrations were strontium (11608.71 μg/kg) and manganese (3543.10 μg/kg), whereas those with minimum concentrations were silver (53.90 μg/kg) and chromium (62.33 μg/kg). Conclusion: Although the concentrations of all the elements fell under the safe limit, the concentrations of many toxic elements were significantly high and resulted in various health hazards on the intake of these elements with other sources.
Abbreviations used: ST: Smokeless tobacco; EDI: Estimated daily intake; ADI: Acceptable daily intake; PTWI: Provisional tolerable weekly intake; HQ: Hazard Quotient; RfD = Oral reference dose; ICH: International Council for Harmonisation; ICP-MS: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy; AAS: Atomic absorption spectroscopy; CTA-OTL-1: Oriental Tobacco Leaves; % R. S. D.: % Relative standard deviation; ppb: Parts per billion; LOD: Limit of detection; SD: Standard Deviation; FAO: Food agriculture organization; WHO: World Health Organization; JECFA: Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives.