Stimulation of murine immune response by Clerodendrum infortunatum
Somit Dutta1, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty2, Pallab Kar3, Priyankar Dey4, Arnab Sen2, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri5
1 Department of Zoology, Cellular Immunology Laboratory, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Botany, Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Human Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
4 Department of Zoology, Cellular Immunology Laboratory, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India; Department of Human Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
5 Department of Zoology, Cellular Immunology Laboratory, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal; Department of Zoology, Bodoland University, Kokrajhar, Assam, India
Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
Department of Zoology, Cellular Immunology Laboratory, University of North Bengal, Siliguri - 734 013, West Bengal
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Clerodendrum infortunatum is a medicinal plant found especially in the Sub-Himalayan regions of West Bengal. Various tribal communities of this region have been using these plants as a source of natural medicine. Objective: Medicinal values of C. infortunatum are well established, but the immunomodulatory properties have never been studied. Therefore, we wanted to investigate various immunomodulatory activities of this plant. Materials and Methods: Several parameters such as plaque-forming cell assay, hemagglutination titer, phagocytic activity of macrophages, and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were performed. Moreover, effects of C. infortunatum on the weight of various organs and total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels were also determined. The phytochemical fingerprints of C. infortunatum extracts were obtained from Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: The macrophage stimulation and plaque-forming cell numbers (using sheep red blood cell as antigen) were significantly proliferated and found optimum at 100 and 250 mg/kg doses of leaf and root extracts simultaneously. The extent of stimulation in mural humoral immunity was in the order of leaf > root > stem. The anti-inflammatory activity of C. infortunatum was confirmed by the inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide synthesis by macrophages. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 70% hydromethanolic extract of C. infortunatum has profound immunomodulation potentials in the murine model, stimulating both humoral and innate form of the immune system.
Abbreviations used: PFC: Plaque-forming cell assay; HA titer: Hemagglutination titer; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared; GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate; sRBC: Sheep red blood cell; PBS: Phosphate buffer saline; PC: Phagocytic capacity; PI: Phagocytic index; NaCl: Sodium chloride; CaCl2: Calcium chloride; NBT: Nitro blue tetrazolium; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; KOH: Potassium hydroxide; H2SO4: Sulfuric acid; HOCl: Hypochlorous acid; H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide; EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.