Contribution of the glucosinolate fraction to the overall antioxidant potential, cytoprotection against oxidative insult and antimicrobial activity of Eruca sativa Mill. leaves extract
Maria Fernanda Taviano1, Antonietta Melchini2, Angela Filocamo3, Chiara Costa4, Stefania Catania5, Roberto Raciti1, Shikha Saha2, Paul Needs2, Giuseppe Giovanni Bisignano1, Natalizia Miceli1
1 Department of Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
2 Institute of Food Research, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
3 Department of Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali; Foundation Prof. Antonio Imbesi, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
4 Department of Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
5 Department of Scienze Biomediche, Odontoiatriche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e Funzionali, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Maria Fernanda Taviano
Department of Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali, University of Messina, Viale S.S. Annunziata, 98168 Messina
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae) is commonly utilized as an ingredient in salads and also as a folk remedy to treat various diseases. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of the glucosinolate (GLS) fraction to the overall antioxidant, cytoprotection against oxidative insult and antimicrobial properties of the hydro-alcoholic extract of E. sativa leaves from Sicily (Italy), characterized phytochemically. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by different in vitro systems. The cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress was tested in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The antimicrobial potential against bacteria and fungi was assayed by standard methods. Results: E. sativa extract exhibited both radical scavenging (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] 1.04 ± 0.04 mg/mL) and ferrous ions-chelating activity (IC50 0.327 ± 0.0032 mg/mL) and mild reducing power; the GLS fraction showed chelating ability only (IC50 0.225 ± 0.009 mg/mL). In the experimental model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human PBMCs, a significant cytoprotective effect and a suppression of reactive oxygen species production by both extract and GLS fraction were observed (P < 0.001). E. sativa extract displayed moderate antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.125 mg/mL), whereas the GLS fraction was not active. Conclusion: GLSs are not involved in the primary antioxidant activity of E. sativa leaf extract but they are, almost in part, responsible for its ferrous ion-chelating properties. Iron-chelating compounds in E. sativa extract may protect cells under conditions of oxidative stress, and GLSs might play a chief role in this effect.
Abbreviations used: GLS: Glucosinolate; H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide; PBMCs: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration.