Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 49  |  Page : 76-83

Anti-hepatocarcinogenic and anti-oxidant effects of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

1 Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Colombo, 90, Cumaratunga Mawatha, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Thalagolla Road, Ragama, Sri Lanka

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sameera R Samarakoon
Scientist, Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Colombo, 90, Cumaratunga Mawatha, Colombo 3
Sri Lanka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.203989

Rights and Permissions

Context: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea is a shrub mangrove plant of the family Rubiaceae and not yet been studied for anti-hepatocarcinogenic effects. Objectives: We investigated possible in vitro anti-hepatocarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of S. hydrophyllacea. Materials and Methods: Dried leaves of S. hydrophyllacea were sequentially extracted into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol and tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and sulforhodamine B assays, and for antioxidant activities by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated in all four extracts. The hexane and chloroform extracts were tested for pro-apoptotic properties in HepG2 cells, and bioactive components were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results: The hexane and chloroform extracts showed dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxic effects. Morphological changes observed under fluorescence microscope related to apoptosis, and significant (P < 0.001) increases in caspase 3 and 9 levels were observed in hexane and chloroform extract-treated cells. Slight DNA fragmentation was observed only in response to the chloroform extract. mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax were significantly upregulated by low doses of hexane and chloroform extracts. Highest antioxidant activity was observed in the methanol extract. GC-MS profiles identified 24 and four major compounds in the hexane and chloroform extracts, respectively. These included some known anticancer compounds such as lupeol. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity, antioxidant effects, and apoptosis-related changes exerted by hexane and chloroform extracts of S. hydrophyllacea concluded that these two extracts are good source for isolation of possible anticarcinogenic compounds. Abbreviation used: DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, GC-MS: gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma, GAE: gallic acid equivalents, SRB: sulforhodamine B, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, AO/EB: acridine orange/ethidium bromide, GAPDH: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, IC50: half maximal inhibitory concentration; QE: quercetin equivalents, HE: hexane extract, CE: chloroform extract, EAE: ethyl acetate extract, ME: methanolic extract, TPC: total polyphenol content, TFC: total flavonoid content, ANOVA: Analysis of variance

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded175    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal